Wood-burning baking stove made of fireclay - the components
All components at a glance - from the foundation to the rain hood
The enthusiasm for baking stove made of fireclay is as strong as ever. For you as a stove fitter, baking stoves made of fireclay therefore offer an attractive additional field of business. What components are needed to build a baking stove and what special technical features need to be considered? We will give you an overview of this below:
Depending on the size and design of the baking stove, there is quickly a weight of 500 to 5,000 kg in an area of two to five square meters. Therefore, a sturdy and frost-proof foundation is needed first. If the chimney is to be located next to or behind the wood-burning baking stove, it is advisable to lay the foundation for this at the same time.
This is followed by the base. The base can be built of many different materials: for example, steel, prefabricated concrete elements, bricks or sand-lime brick. The only important thing is that the material is non-flammable and can safely support the weight of the baking stove. Reinforced concrete slabs, brick plates or brick hourdis plates are suitable for covering the base. If an ash fall is planned, this should be incorporated when creating the base cover.
To ensure that the baking stove works efficiently and retains heat for a long time, it must be insulated. The thickness of the insulation material should be approx. 4-12 cm all around, i.e. also under the combustion chamber. The insulation material must also be non-combustible and must be pressure-resistant even when exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time. In addition, no binding agents or similar should evaporate. Suitable materials include, for example: expanded clay bricks, such as the Prowolf insultaion plate from Wolfshöher Tonwerke, calcium silicate plates, bonded expanded clay or expanded glass fills or perlite.
The size of the combustion chamber essentially depends on the amount of food to be cooked in it at the same time. In principle, anything is possible from 50x60cm to 2x3m. The only thing to bear in mind is that the larger the baking stove, the more time must be allowed for heating the storage mass. For this reason, the storage layer should not be too thick if the baking stove is only used occasionally. A minimum thickness of 3-5 cm of fireclay should be used. If more storage is required, 6-12 cm is recommended. There are many options in terms of design and geometry: if the baking stove is to be used primarily for baking bread, the classic heat saving baking stove with a tunnel vault is the right choice. On the other hand, “constantly fired” baking stoves are more suitable for baking pizzas. The dome vault is best suited for continuously fired stoves, as the flames have more space here.
Baking stove door
Ideally, the baking stove door should not be attached to the fireclay combustion chamber. It is better to fix it to the base floor or in the wall of the outer shell. As the thermal expansion of metal is greater than that of fireclay, a ceramic fibre tape or a sealing cord must be inserted as an expansion cushion.
Flue gas pipes significantly increase the efficiency of wood-burning baking stoves. The hot flue gases from the combustion chamber are redirected again above the baking chamber. The size and length of the flues gas pipes should be matched to the fuel quantity. For heat saving baking stoves, it is advisable to install a tightly closing flue gas damper or a flue gas valve so that the hot air remains in the baking chamber after the wood has burned down and does not escape to the chimney.
A relatively inexpensive chimney solution is the single-walled steel pipe. Here, however, the flue gases cool down quickly and reduce the draught. In addition, a distance of at least 40 cm from the combustible components must be maintained. A double-walled stainless steel pipe is of higher quality. Thanks to integrated insulation, it has good tensile properties and requires smaller distances to combustible components. There are also many suitable standard components such as rain hoods or cleanout openings. If you want to integrate the chimney properly in terms of design, a three-shell chimney system is a good choice. Alternatively, the chimney can also be made of clinker bricks. This type of construction is the most complex and involves a lot of weight. In any case, the combustion chamber or the vault should not bear the weight of the chimney but should be supported by a supporting structure, e.g. by means of angle irons over the outer walls of the outer casing. Bird protection should also be installed.
Finally, to protect the baking stove against the weather and to frame it visually, you need to make an outer casing. This can be realized with different materials: natural stone, clinker bricks, bricks, concrete, aerated concrete and exterior plaster. Clay is also possible if a roof is planned. To avoid cracks in the outer shell, the outer casing should there should be left a gap between the outer casing and the combustion chamber.
You could build a roof on top of the baking stove to provide an additional protection against the weather and, if necessary, to create a small shelter. Once again, there are many different options: Wood, roof tiles, sheet metal covering, natural stone slabs and much more. If the chimney is routed through the roof, make sure there is sufficient distance to the combustible parts.
We will be happy to advise you!
We will be happy to advise you!
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